Nama-hine-ka (literally “raw old stink”)

An unpleasant aroma found in sake which is stored unpasteurized; very close to mure-ka. It is thought to have been given this name linking it to hine-ka (another off-odour occurring during storage) as both include elements deriving from isovaleraldehyde, although the mechanism through which it arises is different in each case. In the case of unpasteurized sake, it is produced by the enzymatic oxidization of isoamyl alcohol, whereas it occurs in pasteurized sake because of Strecker degradation of leucine during storage.